He packed them all off to Mount Ida for Paris to make the decision. Hera and Athena offered him riches, fame, empire, and military glory, but when Aphrodite bribed him with the offer of Helen, whom, he voted for Aphrodite, even though Helen was already married and Paris himself was in love with a nymph. What's more, Paris had to go and abduct Helen, which started the Trojan War.
This motif was also used as an allegory representing a choice between the active life and the sensuous one. Earthly Fours The number four is associated with the earth in many ways.
13. Understanding Images and Symbols in the Book of Revelation
Hartt, Frederic. Italian Renaissance Art. History of Art. Fifth Edition. Zeus fell in love with the maiden Europa, disguised himself as a bull, fitting for this horniest of Gods, and abducted her to Crete. She eventually gave birth to the continent of Europe. These are called the four cardinal virtues to distinguish them from the three Ecclesiastical virtues we'll see later in the New Testament.
To elementary number symbolism we add the Old Testament, in which everything is numbered. Sometimes the numbers have symbolic meaning, but the numbers are often used, it seems, just to make the narrative more concrete, saying, for example, that "Solomon built a house cubits long" instead of "Solomon built a really long house.
Umberto Eco says that much number symbolism can be attributed to the passage from the Book of Wisdom of Solomon, from the OT Apocrypha. XI, The Old Testament has many references to the four cardinal directions, such as in Isaiah 11, Slide Kitzinger, Ernst. The Art of Byzantium and the Medieval West. Bloomington: Indiana, From Virgil's Aeneid we have Aeolus, King of the Winds, who lived on an island just north of Sicily, who ruled the four winds :.
Slide Aeneas and the Sibyl enter Charon's boat. Hamilton, Edith. NY: Mentor, , p. In this picture, Aeneas and the Sibyl enter Charon's boat to cross at the junction of the Acheron and the Cocytus. Slide Phases of the Moon "Maps of Heavens. Another major source of number symbolism is Astrology, an ancient practice that seemed to develop independently in different civilizations.
The Chaldeans, who lived in Babylonia now Iraq , developed astrology as early as B. Astrology was known in ancient India and by the Maya of Central America. By the s BC, astrology had spread to Greece, where Pythagoras and Plato used it into their study of religion and astronomy. It is certainly clear that certain astronomical bodies, particularly the sun, affected the change of seasons and the success of crops.
Geometry in Art & Architecture Unit 4
So its not a big leap to assume that the movements of other bodies such as the planets affected or represented additional aspects of life. They also gave our notions of time, from the daily cycle of night and day, the lunar cycle of 28 days, giving the month, subdivided into the four phases of the moon, and the yearly cycle of 12 lunar cycles or about daily cycles. NY: Mentor, p. In Greek mythology, the seasons came about when Demeter's daughter, Persephone was abducted to the underworld by Hades. There followed an awful flap, too involved to relate here, but they finally cut a deal where Persephone spent half the year in the underworld, which time became autumn and winter, and half above ground, which became spring and summer.
Masterpieces by Michelangelo. NY: Crown, The division of the day into 4 periods , dawn, day, evening, and night, is here represented by Michelangelo, in the Medici Chapel. Slide Compass Rose Calter Photo. The movements of celestial bodies may also have led to Four becoming identified with the four directions, toward the sunrise, towards the sunset, and the two directions perpendicular to these. Thus four is the number of the cardinal points , N, S, E, W, and the directions in which a person can move; right, left, forward, back.
Many a night I saw the Pleides, rising thro' the mellow shade, Glitter like a swarm of fireflies tangled in a silver braid. From Homer's Iliad we have; ". Other Sevens from the Old Testament include the great flood.
Noah had seven days to prepare before the flood. He was commanded to take seven pair of clean beasts and birds. Clean and unclean spelled out in Leviticus Chapter 11, where clean meant ritually pure, similar to what we consider Kosher. The notion that the seventh day was for rest led to the adoption of the weekly Sabbath as a day of rest. But other sacred times of the calendar were based on seven, the seventh or sabbatical year.
Leviticus And. Six years shall you sow your field, and prune thy vineyard, and gather fruit. But the seventh year shall be a Sabbath of rest unto the land you shall neither sow your field, nor prune your vineyard. Leviticus 25, 8- And you shall number seven Sabbaths of years unto thee, seven times seven years; Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound. And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, and proclaim liberty throughout the land it shall be a jubile unto you; and ye shall return every man unto his possession, and ye shall return every man unto his family.
Slide Menorah Keller, Sharon. Two studies on color combinations, one measuring aesthetic response and the other looking at consumer preferences , also find that while a large majority of consumers prefer color patterns with similar hues, they favor palettes with a highly contrasting accent color. In terms of color coordination, this means creating a visual structure consisting of base analogous colors and contrasting them with accent complementary or tertiary colors:. Why does this matter? Although you may start to feel like an interior decorator after reading this section, understanding these principles will help keep you from drinking the conversion rate optimization Kool-Aid that misleads so many people.
Consider, for instance, this oft-cited example of a boost in conversions due to a change in button color. The button change to red boosted conversions by 21 percent. Red, meanwhile, provides a stark visual contrast, and is a complementary color to green.
We find additional evidence of the isolation effect in multivariate tests, including one conducted by Paras Chopra published in Smashing Magazine. Chopra was testing to see how he could get more downloads for his PDFProducer program, and included the following variations in his test:. Example 10 outperformed the others by a large margin. More sign-ups or more clicks is just a single measurement — often a misleading one that marketers try to game simply because it can be so easily measured.
Although different colors can be perceived in different ways, the descriptive names of those colors matters as well. Additional research finds the same effect applies to a wide variety of products; consumers rated elaborately named paint colors as more pleasing to the eye than their simply named counterparts. It has also been shown that more unusual and unique color names are preferable for everything from jelly beans to sweatshirts.
Join the gang of savvy subscribers who receive original, well-researched articles about company culture, customer service, and building a better business every week. In fact, we may have raised more questions than answers. Government agencies such as the U. Many are topographic maps, meaning that they show changes in elevation.
They show all the hills and valleys in an area. This is useful to everyone from hikers trying to choose a route to engineer s trying to determine where to build highways and dam s. They emphasize one theme, or topic. These themes can include information about people, other organisms, or the land. Many thematic maps are now made with the help of geographic information system GIS technology.
Man and his symbols
This technology combines information from maps with other data about people, the land, climate , farms, houses, businesses, and much more, allowing multiple sets of data to be displayed on a single map. Many industries and governments use GIS technology for analysis and decision making. For example, GIS data helps officials determine which streams are most in danger of being pollute d.
It can also help a business decide where to locate a new store. History of Mapmaking Through the ages, maps have taken many different forms. The earliest maps were probably sketches made on the ground that showed the surrounding area. People native to the Marshall Islands used palm fiber s to show wave patterns between islands in the Pacific Ocean.
They used seashell s to represent island s. Inuit fishermen in the Arctic carved pieces of driftwood to show coastal features. It dates back nearly 14, years.
The ancient Greeks are usually considered the founders of scientific cartography. Greek scholar s knew the general size and shape of the Earth, and they developed the grid system of latitude and longitude. Eratosthenes , who lived from about to BCE, calculated the size of the Earth using mathematics and observations of the Sun.
Claudius Ptolemaeus, or Ptolemy , was an astronomer , mathematician, and geographer in the second century CE. He brought mapmaking to a level of precision that would not be seen again until the fifteenth century. He combined all his knowledge about the world into a book called Geography. In Europe during the Middle Ages , cartographers drew maps reflecting their religious beliefs. These maps were generally simple and sometimes fanciful. The city of Jerusalem, holy to Jew s, Christian s, and Muslim s, was sometimes placed in the center. The Nile and the Don meet in a single line to form the top of the T.
During these Dark Ages in Europe, Arab scholars kept scientific cartography alive. They preserved the works of Ptolemy and translated them in Arabic. Arab cartographers produced the first reliable globe of the Western world in the s. During the Islamic Golden Age , Arab cartographers used complicated mathematical and astronomical formulas to help them determine different map projections.
In , the scientist and cartographer al-Idrisi made a map of the world that was better than the world maps Europeans were producing. In the fifteenth century, cartography in Europe improved. The development of printing and engraving meant maps that had previously been painted by hand could be copied more quickly. Around the same time, sailor s began traveling farther on the oceans. They added newly discovered lands and more detailed coastlines to their maps.
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Explorers brought back descriptions of the interiors, as well as the coastlines, of continents. Europeans explored much of the Americas during the sixteenth century, Australia in the seventeeth century, and Antarctica was finally sighted in the late eighteenth century. At this point, fairly accurate maps of the entire world could begin to be assembled.
In the nineteenth century, cartography became more advanced with the development of a printing process called lithography. Lithography allowed cartographers to make many accurate copies of maps with less labor and expense. Photography, color printing, and computers all improved mapmaking even more. In just a few decades, the relationship between people and maps changed drastically.
For example, instead of using paper street maps, many people navigate using GPS units that communicate with satellites to determine their exact location on Earth. Digital versions of maps can represent the Earth in three dimensions, defying the limitations of the flat maps of the past. Almost the entire surface of the Earth has been mapped with remarkable accuracy, and this information is available instantly to anyone with an Internet connection.
Eratosthenes Eratosthenes was an astronomer, librarian, mathematician, and poet. He also invented the discipline of geography in his spare time. Using the position of the sun, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the Earth without leaving Egypt, his home. He used the length of a stadium as his unit of distance. Because stadiums came in two different sizes in the world of ancient Greece, and we dont know which stadium Eratosthenes used, we cant know exactly what he calculated for the circumference of the Earth.
If he used the larger Greek stadium, his circumference would be larger than the Earth by about 16 percent. If he used the smaller, so-called "Egyptian stadium," his calculation would still be largerbut only by 1 percent.
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Printing Pioneers The Chinese were skilled cartographers. The first map was printed in China in A. Beyond Earth Using images taken from spacecraft, cartographers have created detailed maps of the surfaces of the Moon and Mars. Astrocartographers have identified Martian valleys, craters, and even dry riverbeds. Misleading Maps A type of cylindrical projection called a Mercator projection shows direction well.
It was long used to make charts that sailors could use to find their way around the globe. Like all cylindrical projections, a Mercator projection greatly distorts the size of land near the poles. In a Mercator projection, Greenland and Africa are about the same size. In reality, Africa is 14 times the size of Greenland. Also called a temperate zone. Satellites can be natural, like moons, or made by people. Sea level is determined by measurements taken over a year cycle.
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Select from these educational resources to teach middle school students more about physical boundaries.